India has got remarkably diverse demographics with around 1.18 billion people. The country has more than one-sixth of the population of the entire world. India is the second largest country in terms of population, after China. With about 17.3% of world’s population, it is presumed that soon the country will surpass China. Population experts have estimated that by 2025, India will be ahead of China in terms of population.
In India, one can encounter with two thousand ethnic groups, different kinds of religion practiced by people and four different types of languages like Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, Indo-European and Austro-Asiatic languages. Population of different ethnic and religious greatly varies depending on the parameters like education and income. There exists a great difference in income and education levels amongst various groups forming the Indian population.
The land area required to support around 17.3% of the population of the world is just 2.4% of the world’s land. The primary activities in which the largest part of Indian population is engaged are the agriculture, as majority of the population reside in villages. In a recent survey, it was revealed that around 72.2% Indians reside in 638,000 villages, 27.8% in 5100 towns urban agglomerations. The majority of the world’s Sikhs, Jains and Zoroastrians are found in India. Muslim population in India is the third highest in the world. Indian states highly vary in the composition of religion based population. The states of Mizoram, Nagaland and Meghalaya have majority of Christians; majority Sikhs live in Punjab while Muslims dominate Lakshadweep and Jammu & Kashmir.
India is a multi-linguistic society where people speak many languages and all are accepted by the society at large. Among the Hindus, 43% speak Hindi while others speak Gujarati, Assamese, Malayalam, Kannada, Tamil, Marathi, Telugu, Bangla and other languages. Among the Muslims, around 45% speak Urdu. Among Christians, one-sixth of them speak Tamil, one-third of them speak Malayalam, while English is universally known. In India, there are total 1652 dialects and languages that are spoken.
The population in India is growing rapidly. With few efforts to control it our country is heading towards poverty and depleting the local resources. The continuity in the world population will greatly impact the environment and result in production of wastes and immense pressure on the arable land. Pollution level will also increase if the population is more thereby resulting in diseases like respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, meningitis etc. Overcrowding, inadequate housing, lack of opportunities to get gainful employment and ecological stresses will all lead to the problems associated with population rise.